How to design the code structure of pyqt5 project better

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When designing a project based on PyQt5, good code structure is very critical, making the project easy to maintain, extend, and read. Here are some basic guidelines and best practices for designing code structure for PyQt5 projects:

1. Separate logic and interface

  • Logic (Business Logic) : Code that processes data, algorithms and business logic.
  • Interface (UI) : Code that defines user interface elements, typically using .uifiles (designed via Qt Designer) or directly using Python code.

Keeping business logic and UI code separated allows you to adjust the interface without affecting the application logic, and also makes testing and maintenance of the logic part more convenient.

2. Programming using Model/View

The separation of model and view allows the data (model) to be modified and tested independently of the UI view. When model data changes, the view can automatically update without directly manipulating UI elements.

3. Example of project directory structure

An example PyQt5 project structure might include the following directories and files:

my_pyqt_project/
│
├── main.py                
│
├── ui/                   
│   ├── mainwindow.ui
│   └── ...
│
├── resources/             
│   ├── icons/
│   └── images/
│
├── views/                 
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── mainwindow.py
│   └── ...
│
├── models/                
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── somemodel.py
│   └── ...
│
└── controllers/           
    ├── __init__.py
    └── somecontroller.py

4. MVC or MVVM pattern

  • MVC (Model-View-Controller) : The pattern divides the application into models, views and controllers. The controller acts as an intermediary between the model and the view, handling business logic.
  • MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel) : It is a variant of MVC, especially suitable for UI applications with a lot of data binding.

These patterns can help organize code so that different parts can be developed and tested independently.

5. Signals and Slots

PyQt5 uses signals and slots mechanism to handle events and messages. Interface elements (such as button clicks) emit signals, and slots are functions that respond to these signals. Proper use of signals and slots can decouple UI code from logic code and make maintenance easier.

6. Using PyQt5’s data model and delegates

When it comes to displaying list or table data, try to use the model (such as QListModelQTableModel) and view (such as QListViewQTableView) classes provided by PyQt5. These classes provide efficient data display and editing methods, and can also customize the style of displayed data.

7. Test

  • Separating logic and interface code makes unit testing easier. Write tests for business logic and run them regularly to ensure modifications do not affect existing functionality.

Summarize

Good code structure is essential for developing large and maintainable PyQt5 applications. By following the guidelines and best practices outlined above, you can build a codebase that is clear, scalable, and easy to maintain. As the project grows, this structured approach will show its true value.

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